Monday, 26 August 2013

Introduction: Oracle Startup, Parameter Files and Oracle Cache Management

Introduction to Oracle Startup, Parameter File and Oracle Cache Management: System Global Area (SGA) and Program Global Area (PGA)

A) Oracle startup phrases:
Offline: Oracle instance processes and buffer do not exist
Nomount: Read parameter file, start processes, allocate memory buffer
Mount: Open control files
Open: Open all data files and online redo log files

B) Oracle initialization parameter file
- When Oracle database is started, one of the first things is to read the database initialization parameter file that contains values from either a PFILE (init<SID>.ora) or SPFILE. The parameter values that defines the overall instance configuration such as how much memory to allocate, the file locations of datafiles, optimization parameters and etc.
- Oracle instance is started by searching the default location for a parameter file with one of the following names (in this order):
NoParameter fileDescription
1spfile<DBSID>.oraSPFILE for the instance - cannot edit the binary file directly
Edit through: alter system set <parameter>=<value> scope=spfile
3init<DBSID>.oraPFILE for the instance name SID - can edit it using text editor
4init.oraSample PFILE
The search is finished as soon as one of the files is found, and the instance is started using that profile, which is normally an SPFILE. If no SPFILE exists in the default directory, the instance is started with the standard initialization file.
- Profile located in $ORACLE_HOME\dbs (Linux/Unix) and $ORACLE_HOME\database (Windows)
- Backup of the PFILE and SPFILE (Recommended to sync the PFILE=SPFILE to allow parameters change with text editor):
   - create pfile=/path/to/backup.ora from spfile
   - create spfile from pfile=/path/to/backup.ora
- Shut down Oracle database to replace the spfile. As the file is in use the entire time the database is running and should never overwrite it during normal operations

C) Oracle Cache Management

1) System Global Area (SGA)
- Shared memory area that can be called by all Oracle process, contains buffer pool, shared pool, Java pool, large pool, stream pool and Redo buffer
- parameters can be change dynamically without system restart (SGA_MAX_SIZE, DB_CACHE_SIZE)

2) Program Global Area (PGA)
Process local memory which is assigned to exactly one process (shadow process)

D) Example:

1. Determine profile used (PFILE or SFILE)
In SQLPlus execute "show parameter spfile" if SPFILE been used the value will shown the path of the parameter file. If init<SID>.ora been used, the value will be null.

2. Determine Dynamic SGA activated
- DB_CACHE_SIZE not equal to 0
- DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS: obsolete and cannot use simultaneously with SGA_MAX_SIZE or

3. Determine automatic PGA activated

Friday, 23 August 2013

How to display SAP profile parameters

Example to display the SAP parameters

A) To shown all the parameters with TCODE: SE38

1) Execute TCODE: SE38 and execute program: RSPARAM

2) Click "Execute" button

3) The list of all the SAP parameters 

B) To shown different profile parameters with TCODE: RZ10

1) Execute "RZ10"

2) Select the profile to show the relevant parameters contains in it

3) Select "Extended maintenance" and click "display" button

4) The parameters of the particular profile

C) To shown only certain parameter with TCODE: RZ11

1) Execute "RZ11" and enter the parameter name

2) The details of the particular parameter

Troubleshooting for audit log not shown in ST01


Audit trace in "ST01" are not showing any record / insufficient of trace record.
Ex: the trace only able to track for few hours of logs.


1) Execute TCODE: ST01, click "Goto" -> "Administration

2) The parameters shown there will be total of 10 trace files with 16MB each for the audit logging. In this case 160MB of logging space will be used and once the log reach the maximum size, it will be overwritten again. Any change to the parameters will required to click the "Activate" button or changes can be make in the profile parameters

3) Ensure sufficient space for the logging "/usr/sap/<SID>/DVEMGS68/log

4) Only enable the required trace components or users to reduce the logging space usage

5) Sample of authorization trace

How to troubleshoot for SAP security log missing in SM20

When performing "SM20" audit log review and found that the users tcode activities were missing from the trace

A) Temporary (Trace will be turn off after server restart)

1) Execute "SM19"

2) Select the "DynamicConfiguration" tab -> Select "Configuration" -> Select "Activate audit"

3) Click "Yes"

4) The trace activated successfully

5) Log file created in "/usr/sap/QAS/DVEBMGS68/log" showing the trace was started

6) Sample of the trace

7) With this option the only limitation will be the trace will be turn off after server restart

B) Permanent (Trace will remain on after server restart)

1) Execute "SM19" and select the "Static Configuration" tab

2) Click "Environment" -> "Profile parameter"

3) Select parameter: "rsau/enable", value 0 = trace disable, value 1 = trace enable

4) Double click "rsau/enable" to show the explanation of the parameter

5) Execute "RZ10" to change the parameter, select the instance profile

6) Select "Extended maintenance" and click "display" button

7) Click "Create Parameter" button to insert the "rsau/enable=1"

9) Once profile added and activated, try restart the server and the log tracing will be still running.

Wednesday, 21 August 2013

SAP BR*Tools an interactive interface for Oracle database management


1) SAP delivers the "BR*Tools" to provide an interactive Oracle database administration tools which allow administrator to perform database administration tasks on the operating system level.

2) The tools are installed on the database server: /usr/sap/<SID>/SYS/exe/run

3) Different between BR*Tools and BRTOOLS
    - BR*Tools is the program package containing BRSPACE, BRBACKUP, BRARCHIVE, 
    - BRTOOLS is the program that displays the character-based menus from which the other BR programs
       are called. It works together with BRGUI to generate a graphical user interface.

4) The list of tools:
Database administration: instance management, space management and reorganization
Backup of data files, control files and online redo log files
Backup of offline redo log files
Restore of data files, control files and online and offline redo log files
Tool for database restore and recovery
Database administration: database check, update of statistics, changing user password and etc
Interactive tool for calling the other tools through menus

5) To check the BR*Tools version (brtools -V all)

6) Sample of BR*TOOLS:

7) Meaning of the symbol in the menu
The action is completed
Parameter can be change / choose / execute
change this optional parameter or reset its value to null
Display entry, no input allow
This is the initial default choice
Parameter value must be enter
. Execute this action
. Change this parameter

That's all for the basic of the BR*Tools, we'll me see more on the rest of the administration tools soon ...

Thursday, 15 August 2013

How to subscription onto Flipboard or RSS readers

Steps to subscribe this website ( to any compatible RSS readers or Flipboard

RSS reader:
Scan or Copy & paste the link to the subscription option:

1) Scan the QR Code for the URL Feed :


2) Feed:


1) Run the Flipboard program

2) Paste the Feed URL on the search text box and wait for the search result to appear and add the search 
    result to your Flipboard list.
    Feed URL: (the icon & description found might be 
    slightly different with the same title)

 3) The feed added successfully

5) Sample post as shown

Monday, 5 August 2013

Administration: How to lock and unlock a client

There are two methods to lock and unlock a client which is locked while performing a client copy.


Option 1: TCODE: SCC4 and untick the option "Locked due to client copy"

Option 2: TCODE: SE37

1) Login to the any client with "DDIC" or "SAP*" and execute SE37, enter "SCCR_UNLOCK_CLIENT" to unlock or "SCCR_LOCK_CLIENT" to lock a client. Click the "Execute" button / F8

2) Enter the client number to be unlock and click "Execute" button / F8

Administration: Resolve RFC error during client copy

In rare case, administrator might experience RFC error during the client copy process.

Steps to create the RFC for client copy:

1) TCODE: SCCL and sample screen of client copy

2) Subsequent screen of the client copy

3) Error occur on the client copy

4) Login to client: 000 with DDIC or SAP* or any administration account and execute TCODE: SM59 to create a RFC connection for the source client (FINBTR@<SID>CLNT<SourceClient>)

5) Used a login account with "sap_all" in the source client and test the connection with "Remote Logon" and "Connection Test" button

6) Continue the client copy process and the error on "step 3" should be resolve